In hokku, as said many times here, one looks for a harmony of the elements included. But the technique used to create it varies. Two main types are:
1. Harmony of Similarity:
We find this in Chiyo-ni’s excellent verse that lets us feel the desolation and silence of winter:
In field and mountain
The snowy morning.
The snow, the stillness — both express the deep Yin (cold and inactivity here) of the season.
2. Harmony of contrast:
There is a verse by Issa that gives us the contrast between extreme cold (Yin) and extreme heat (Yang):
On the morning frost —
The blacksmith’s sparks.
The frost and the sparks are quite opposite, yet when joined in this winter verse they form a harmonious unity — fire and ice. The blacksmith in the original is a nokaji (野鍛冶 ) — literally a “field” blacksmith — but the term means one who makes agricultural tools like scythes and hoes, etc. That is too specific to convey in an English language hokku, and it is not really necessary to be so specific in translation. We get the essential meaning of the verse as it stands in English.
There is a hokku by Buson from the opposite season — summer — that shows us a similar contrast of Yin and Yang, yet it has quite a different feeling because of the seasonal difference:
Cools his chisel in it.
The metal chisel becomes hot from the friction of cutting stone, so the mason places it in the flowing water to cool it.
The hokku of summer and those of winter have this in common — that those using harmony of contrast correctly often give a strong sensory impression, which in hokku is good. It is a common effect that we all easily recognize, like coming in out of winter’s finger-numbing frost to a hot bowl of soup.