If one does not have an understanding of the basic principles of hokku, it is often difficult to appreciate a verse because one simply does not “get” it. This was a major factor in the rise of modern haiku in the west, which began largely as a misunderstanding and misperception of the hokku.
I often talk about this or that principle of hokku here, because without an understanding of those principles it is difficult to fully appreciate hokku.
One of those principles is internal reflection. Internal reflection means that the quality or character of one thing in a hokku is reflected in the quality or character of another thing. Internal reflection is very common in hokku, and gives it a certain depth.
Take for example this summer verse by Shirō:
A huge ant
Walks across the floor;
This is a very obvious example of internal reflection, so obvious that some people are likely to “get” it without realizing just why.
Put very simply, the magnitude of the present heat is reflected in the hugeness of the ant. The writer (and the understanding reader) perceives the “bigness” of the oppressive heat in the “bigness” of the ant.
R. H. Blyth attempted to to explain this by saying,
“It will do no harm to say that the ant is a symbol of the heat, provided we remember that it is so because it is felt to be so, and in as much as it has no rationally explicable connection with that heat.”
Well, it can do harm. Blyth obviously knew, even while writing the sentence, that the ant is not really a symbol of the heat, and that his attempt to explain the matter is potentially misleading. And there is a connection that can be explained rationally and simply, and without the potential confusion inherent in Blyth’s attempt.
In hokku one thing does not symbolize another. Each thing has its own value and significance, but that value or significance can be enhanced or deepened through internal reflection, which is actually what happens in this verse. The unusual size of the ant reflects the unusual “size” of the heat. The quality or character of one thing is reflected in the quality or character of another.
While Blyth was without question the most perceptive of the writers on hokku, unfortunately he did not present the nature and fundamentals of writing hokku in a simple and systematic fashion, which has led to much of what he had to say being either overlooked or ignored or forgotten today. And of course there is his regrettable anachronistic use of the term “haiku” for what was and is really hokku. Nonetheless, there is still much to be learned from Blyth, though one must work at it, and few are willing to put forth the effort.
But we need not go into all of that. What we do need to remember is the principle of internal reflection and how it works in hokku, because it is very often used.
And by the way, in the original verse, what I have translated as “floor” is tatami — those woven mats of grass on a wooden framework that together formed the floor in the traditional Japanese home. But for us, in English, “floor” does the job.