As regular readers here know, I treat many of the verses of Shiki as hokku because they are hokku in form and content, in spite of his use of the revisionist term “haiku” for what he wrote.
Knowing that, we are in a position to examine one of his verses of early spring:
With snow melting,
The village releases
If you have been a diligent reader of hokku postings here, you will recognize right away that this verse exhibits two techniques found in hokku:
1. Expression of season through the interplay of Yin and Yang;
2. Internal reflection.
We find Yin and Yang in the melting of the snow, which shows us that the Yang energies (light, warmth, activity) are in the ascendant and the Yin energies (darkness, cold, inactivity) are diminishing. That is obvious in the melting of the snow.
We see internal reflection in the harmony between the melting of the snow (increasing Yang, water freed from its ice state) and the freeing of the horses (from an inactive to an active state) — in fact they are the same thing, expressed on the one hand in snow melting to running water, on the other in horses, kept largely inactive in winter, freed to run and leap about in the fields and newly appearing grass. The verse shows us the growing Yang of spring.
Onitsura’s hokku is more simple and subtle, particularly in a literal translation of the original:
Spring’s water — here and there is seen….
What Onitsura really means to convey would, in English, be more like this:
The waters of spring,
Seen here, there,
Early spring is a very wet time, with the snow melting and running all over in little rivulets, and spring showers just increasing the flow. But the water is not the same, psychologically, as that of autumn or winter — it is the water of spring, and in it we feel growing Yang and increasing activity.