I hope that readers here have begun to realize from my postings that the hokku is quite different from the modern haiku. In general, a modern haiku is just a verse of some kind written in three lines. It might have something to do with Nature or it might not; it might have something to do with the seasons or it might not. Hokku, however, are always about Nature and the place of humans as a part of Nature, and each hokku expresses a particular season.
In modern haiku we are likely to find verses like:
I woke up
with my headache gone
I actually saw a verse quite like that in a recent book purporting to teach people how to write. A verse like that is just a statement with no real substance. It has no depth, and none is added even by mention of the month. That superficiality is unfortunately characteristic of most modern haiku.
Hokku, however, has the depth of Nature and the seasons if written correctly, the depth of time and change. The student of hokku gradually learns to expect this and to recognize it, so that even a simple-looking verse, when approached from the hokku perspective, contains more than is on the surface. For example, here is a slight variation on a Meiji period verse:
The iron windbell
Tinkling and tinkling;
To understand this verse as hokku rather than haiku, one must realize that the same thing can mean very different things in different seasons. A windbell in the spring is not the same as a windbell in autumn. Autumn is a time when the weather worsens, when rain and storms and winds increase. So the repeated tinkling of the windbell is noticed by the writer precisely because it manifests the nature of autumn. We feel the coming of something in the constant tinkling, and that something is the increasing decline of the year into coldness and darkness and rain. We hear autumn in the tinkling of the windbell.
In addition, it is significant that the windbell is of iron. We may picture it in our minds either as dark and black — a Yin color in keeping with the shortening of the days in autumn — or we may see it as brown and rusty, which also is in keeping with autumn — when things lose their color and decay and age. Do not forget that one of the pleasures of hokku and one of the things that adds greatly to their feeling of significance is the way elements in a verse “reflect” one another in this way. That, again, is called “internal reflection,” and it is very important to hokku.
It should be obvious from these few remarks that one of the major differences between hokku and modern haiku is that hokku has an aesthetic framework in which a verse is to be understood and appreciated. Modern haiku merely has a verse without such a background, which is why so many modern haiku lack a sense of depth and unspoken significance. A hokku, then, requires a kind of “hokku mind” in the reader, one that recognizes the interrelationship of all things in Nature, one that sees how the elements of a verse work together to manifest the nature of a season.
Those in modern haiku are generally completely unfamiliar with these things, because modern haiku has lost its spiritual roots. That is why if they notice the presence of internal reflection at all — which is very seldom — they do not know what it is or what it means, and completely misinterpret it in Western poetic terms as “metaphor,” failing to understand its nature and purpose.