Autumn has begun.
Autumn is the declining of the life energies in Nature. We see it in the withering of grasses and plants, in the yellowing and coloring and, eventually, the falling of the leaves. In America our “native” name for the season is the Fall, and that is what it is — the fall of the leaves. It is also the fall of the turning wheel of the year from the Yang height of summer to the deep Yin of winter.
In hokku it is very important that things reflect one another, that they are harmonious even in difference. The declining of vital energy in the autumn is in keeping with late afternoon in the day. In human life, it corresponds to the time when a person grows old, the “autumn of life,” as people say. Autumn is a time of the calming of the energies of summer, a time when Nature prepares to go inward, to “return to the root” as we see in plants whose upper leaves wither as the energy to survive winter begins to concentrate in their roots.
Autumn is a time of change, of preparation for the harshness and stillness and poverty of winter. Animals store their food or prepare for hibernation; birds, as the air cools, begin their great journeys southward across the skies. Even humans like to find, when possible, a secure place to spend the coming winter.
Autumn, then, is the declining of Yang energy and the increasing of Yin, a movement toward the predominance of stillness and silence over activity and sound. It manifests all through the season, for example in the cries of migrating wild geese high overhead that quickly pass and disappear in the distance, and in sudden storms that fade eventually to silence.
We see autumn, then, in things that are aging and things that are old; in fading leaves, in bleached boards, in withering plants, and old people with grey hair and slowing step. We see it in the chilling of the air and the return of the rains, and of course in the decline of the path of the sun in the sky and the shortening of the day.
Scarecrows are a favorite subject for hokku in autumn because they manifest the character of the season so well — its aging, its frailty, its deepening poverty, its weakness:
The scarecrow is blown down;
That shows us the frailty and weakness that are in keeping with the season, in spite of the strength of the storm. And of course we can say of the scarecrow — as Nyōfu does here,
It is old
From the day it is made —
That is what makes it such an expressive manifestation of the autumn — its poverty, its weakness, its inherent frailty.
The scarecrow, we must note, is not a metaphor for anything; it does not symbolize or represent anything. But of course because of the principle of reflection, we cannot help feeling ourselves in the scarecrow, and in fact, feeling all of Nature at autumn in the scarecrow. It is said that a single falling leaf is all of autumn, and the same may be said of a scarecrow, which we feel in this verse of Chōi:
The autumn wind
Goes right through its bones —
The scarecrow shows us the transience and impermanence inherent in Nature, inherent in all things.
Shōha gives us the harmony of two similar things in this verse:
The evening sun;
The shadow of the scarecrow
Reaches the road.
The scarecrow is old as the day is old, and the sun declines as the year declines into silence and darkness.
The scarecrow is the ultimate of humility and selflessness. It is no respecter of persons. It removes its hat before no one, and it is unmoved alike by beauty and ugliness, as Issa points out:
A full moon;
It stands there indifferent —
Of course there is a bit of animism in that, the tendency of people to see “life” in things that are not alive in the usual sense. The birds of autumn, however, are not fooled, as Sazanami shows us:
To scarecrow they fly —
The scarecrow is clothed
In fallen leaves.
It reminds us of the words of Jesus in the New Testament in that most poetic of translations, the “King James” version:
And why take ye thought for raiment? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin: And yet I say unto you, That even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. Wherefore, if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to day is, and tomorrow is cast into the oven, shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith?
The scarecrow, however, is above such sermons, unimpressed by status and position and wealth, unmoved by glory or shame, just a manifestation of elements that come together temporarily to make a form, and then disperse again into nothingness.