We earlier saw that there are basically two different kinds of hokku — subjective hokku and objective hokku. Subjective hokku are those in which the writer adds his own view or interpretation, his “thinking.” Objective hokku are those that simply present an experience and let the reader experience it too.
I teach objective hokku, because to me, it is the “purest” kind, very appropriate for a contemplative lifestyle. Just as we should not add “thinking” to our meditation, we also do not add it to our hokku.
It is not difficult to recognize the other kind, subjective hokku, however. We need look no farther than Bashō to find numerous examples, some very well known:
Fleeting dreams beneath
The summer moon.
“Fleeting dreams beneath the summer moon” is the “thinking” addition.
Ill on a journey;
Dreams run about
The withered fields.
“Dreams run about the withered fields” is the added “thinking”
Art’s beginning —
The rice planting songs
Of the interior.
“Art’s beginning” is the added “thinking.”
Did it cry itself
A cicada shell.
“Did it cry itself utterly away?” is the added “thinking.”
But we also find in Bashō some quite good examples of objective hokku — those without added “thinking”:
The old pond;
A frog jumps in —
The sound of water.
On a withered branch
A crow has perched;
The autumn evening.
Generally it is easy to recognize subjective hokku — hokku with “thinking” added. But some are a bit tricky, for example, Chiyo-ni wrote:
The well bucket
Taken by the morning glory;
At first this would seem to be an objective verse, because Chiyo-ni is just stating “facts.” But then we realize that the point of the verse is that she does not want to tear the morning glory vine away from the well bucket, and so she goes to borrow water from a neighbor. That introduces a subjective element, and puts the writer of the verse front and center. In hokku, however, we prefer that the writer get out of the way so that Nature may speak. We do not want to know about Chiyo-ni’s delicate aesthetic sensibilities; we just want a sensory experience.
By contrast, here is a pleasantly objective verse by Chiyo-ni:
In field and mountain,
The snowy morning.
Rankō has an objective hokku, though it has a longer time span:
Withered reeds —
Day after day breaking off,
And of course in Issa we have the very obvious “thinking” of:
This dewdrop world —
A dewdrop world it is,
In Onitsura ‘s hokku we find objective examples such as:
The leaping trout,
Clouds pass by.
But sometimes he is subjective, as in:
I have not yet
Taken off the Floating World;
The change of clothes.
The “floating world” is the “worldly” life. “The change of clothes” signifies that time when one changes from cold-weather clothing to warm-weather clothing. It is not difficult to see that “I have not yet taken off the Floating World” is Onitsura’s “thinking” addition, his added subjectivity.
In both reading and writing hokku, we should be increasingly able to recognize subjectivity, and to distinguish it from objectivity. “Subjective” hokku are those people are likely to think of as more “poetic,” because people in the West are accustomed to subjective thinking in poetry. But in hokku we look for sensory experience, and that requires greater aesthetic awareness to appreciate. It demands more of reader and writer, because it offers us those experiences in which we perceive an unspoken significance, even though all we have is tasting, touching, smelling, hearing, and seeing — without added “thinking.”