I often mention the four approaches to verse:
1. The subject (the writer) treated subjectively (with the writer’s personal thoughts and opinions added);
2. The subject (the writer) treated objectively (without one’s personal thoughts and opinions added);
3. The object (that which is written about) treated subjectively (with one’s personal thoughts and opinions added);
4. The object (that which is written about) treated objectively (without one’s personal thoughts and opinions added).
Yesterday we saw a verse that, while dealing with emotion, treats it objectively, through its actual manifestation in action — Shōha’s
The boy frets;
That is the object (the boy and his emotion and the rain) treated objectively. The writer simply notes what is happening as he would note someone rowing a boat up a river. We feel the boy’s nervous fretting in the jerkiness of the words of the first two lines, with their single-syllabic abruptness:
Kite bought, / The boy frets
! ! – ! !
And then comes the smoothness of the third line,
which provides the steady background drone to the staccato fretting of the boy. It is a bit like the tamboura in Indian music, with its steady, ceaseless hum against which the changing melody of the sitar rises and falls. It is somewhat similar to Bashō’s “Old Pond” spring hokku:
The old pond;
A frog jumps in —
The sound of water.
The pond is the “drone” element, the background against which the sudden splash of the frog takes place. But in Bashō’s verse, the “temporal” element — the splash — happens only once, while in Shōha’s verse the jerky fretting is ongoing and staccato against the steady drone of the falling rain.
The important thing to note in this case, however, is that the subject is treated objectively, without the writer adding his thoughts and opinions. Shōha simply states what is happening: the boy has bought a kite; he frets as the rain keeps falling.
In hokku we keep to such objectivity, which means we generally write according to numbers 2 and 4:
2. The subject treated objectively.
4. The object treated objectively.
That is because hokku is interested in things and actions, and not in all of the thoughts and opinions that the writer may put on them or associate with them. A hokku is not a springboard for thoughts and intellectual conclusions. Instead it is an experience of the senses — of seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, or smelling.
That is why in hokku we generally exclude the other two approaches to verse, 1 and 3:
1. The subject treated subjectively.
3. The object treated subjectively.
If you do not like to think of it in these terms, just remember that in hokku, whether we are writing about our “selves” or about something else, we keep our own thoughts and intellectualization and opinionating out of it. In doing so, we get the writer out of the way and let Nature speak.