In the last posting we reviewed Yin and Yang in hokku, and introduced the two kinds of contrast. This latter is important in itself, so I shall say more about it.
Hokku may exhibit either:
1. Harmony of contrast
2. Harmony of similarity
Harmony of contrast is the inclusion of elements that are quite opposite to one another — something that is hot against something that is cool; something wet against something dry; something unmoving against something moving.
Harmony of similarity includes things that are similar in character (again in terms of Yin and Yang). For example, we may have a crow and evening (here the similarity is in darkness); we may have a child and springtime (here the similarity is in “youngness” or “freshness”; we may have billowing clouds and the sail on a boat (similarity in “swelling”). All these are things similar in character.
When we have a hokku including similar things, we must be careful not to understand this as simile (meaning one thing in a verse is said to be “like” another) or metaphor (meaning one thing in verse “is” another). The difference is very important.
If we say, as did Robert Burns,
O, my luve’s like a red, red rose, That’s newly sprung in June.
we are using simile — one thing is openly said to be like another.
In hokku, however, we do not say one thing is “like” another. Instead, when we put two “similar” things in a hokku — for example an old man and the evening (both “aged” things with increasing Yin), we say that one thing reflects another.
The difference between simile and internal reflection is that in simile, the mind of the reader is pulled between two images — a young woman and a red rose. In internal reflection, however, the two similar elements reflect and complement and enhance one another.
In this site I shall treat Shiki — who really marked the shift from the hokku to new kinds of brief verse — as a writer of hokku, because in fact he maintained the form and technique, the seasonal connection and the focus on Nature.
Though the hole in the stone lantern —
Look at all these elements:
1. Coolness (Yin) — cold is Yin.
2. A hole (Yin) — absence is Yin.
3. Stone (Yin) — immobility is Yin.
4. Sea (Yin) — water is Yin.
All of these “like” elements reflect one another, creating an airy hokku filled with coolness, in spite of the fact that this is a summer verse! It is pleasant to experience these “cool” things in summer.
There are many reasons for an experience that strikes us as significant enough to make a hokku, but a major contributing factor is often the presence of such internal reflection in the elements of an experience. When we have such reflection, we say the elements of the verse are harmonious, that they work together to create a unified experience.
But again, we must remember that in hokku there are two kinds of harmony — the harmony of similar things and the harmony of dissimilar things. That is why in summer, verses which have internally reflecting Yang elements (heat, dryness, roughness, brightness, etc.) are harmonious, but so are hokku with internally reflecting dissimilar and contrary elements (a spring of water against the heat of day, shade against sunlight, a fluttering bird in the still silence of a forest).
Everything I have discussed here is very important to an understanding of hokku and its aesthetics. Next time you are out for a walk, look for harmonies of similarity and harmonies of contrast. Eventually you will see that this is just another way of describing the changes and transformations and interplay of the two universal elements, Yin and Yang.
This concept is very ancient. In Daoist cosmology, first there is only unity, The ONE. The ONE separates into two — the primal opposites of Yin and Yang, and the interplay of these two in all proportions and combinations then creates the “Ten Thousand Things,” by which is meant everything that exists, the cell, the flower, the world, the star, the galaxy, the universe.