Metaphor is not a part of good hokku as I teach it. Let’s look at just what a metaphor is:
The Oxford English Dictionary tells us that it is a “figure of speech in which a name or descriptive term is transferred to some object different from, but analogous to, that to which it is properly applicable.”
Anyone who has studied Western poetry or English literature in general should readily know what that means when applied to poetry. It means, put simply, saying one thing is another, as opposed to the simile, which says one thing is like another.
If a writer, for example, says that mountains are “silent folk,” he is saying that mountains are “folk,” meaning people. He does not, of course, really believe the mountains are silent folk; he is just using metaphor as a poetic technique to make his point. If he were using a simile (which he probably should in this case), he would say instead, that mountains are like silent folk.
When William Wordsworth wrote that he would “sit and play with similes,” he came up with many names for the daisy. He called it “a nun demure, of lowly port” and “a little Cyclops, with one eye.” These, of course, are really metaphors used in that manner, but if Wordsworth had written instead, “The daisy is like a nun demure, of lowly port,” he would be using simile.
Where Robert Burns said in simile, “My love is like a red, red rose,” Robert Herrick instead chose metaphor — “You are a tulip seen today…”
There is no confusion, then, about what a metaphor is and what a simile is, and neither is to be found in good hokku as I teach it.
Yesterday I used this verse to demonstrate how some misunderstand and misinterpret hokku. It is Bashō’s hokku:
Summer grasses –
All that remains
Of warriors’ dreams.
You, dear reader, know what metaphor is, and there is not the slightest trace of it to be found in that verse. If Bashō had said instead
They are only summer grasses
In the fields.
THAT would be metaphor. But of course that is not what Basho wrote, just a rewriting to make his verse fit Western metaphor.
In an earlier posting, I mentioned another old hokku of Bashō that is commonly misinterpreted as metaphor. Let’s look at it again, because it reveals the technique that was really used:
Kare eda ni karasu no tomari-keri aki no kure
Withered branch on crow ga has-perched autumn ‘s evening
On the withered branch
A crow has perched;
The autumn evening.
Some go wild with this one, finding it filled with metaphor. The see it in terms of Western poetry instead of hokku aesthetics.
The verse, instead of being an example of metaphor in hokku, is instead a very good example of the principle of internal reflection.
To clarify, let’s look at the difference:
Metaphor is saying one thing is another.
Internal reflection is the combining of elements that reflect one another.
Here is how internal reflection works in this particular hokku:
We have these elements:
1. A withered branch
2. A perching crow
3. An autumn evening
The branch, which is withered, is reflected in the autumn, which is the time of withering in Nature; further, evening is the time of day when Yang energies decline into night, so all these elements exhibit a loss of Yang energies.
The crow is black; this is reflected in the gathering darkness of the evening,
Everything in this verse, then, depicts a decline of Yang. The crow has settled on the branch, reflecting the passivity of Yin; the darkness of the crow is Yin, as is the evening, as is the autumn, as is the withered branch.
One may alternatively translate aki no kure as “autumn’s end,” but the same principle still applies. The end of autumn is a decline of Yang energies, a time of growing Yin.
It is just that simple. We should not see metaphor in the verse, but rather the internal reflection that takes place among its component elements.
Now why do so many fail to see this? It is because they have never been taught the importance and significance of the use of Yin and Yang in hokku, and how they are employed in internal reflection. So they misinterpret the verse — as they misinterpret numbers of other hokku — as examples of metaphor, because they see it only in terms of what is already familiar to them, and what is familiar to them is the methodology of Western poetry and literature, which they then misapply to hokku.