In the last posting, we saw a hokku into which Bashō put too much overt emotion, which spoiled it. How should emotion be expressed in hokku? Indirectly, as in this verse by Issa:
Hitōri to chōmen ni tsuku yosamu kana
One-person register in marks night cold kana
He notes in the register;
The cold night.
Notice that there is no overt mention at all of emotion, and yet the verse evokes a certain feeling in us as we read it. That is because the fact that the fellow registering at the inn is single — alone — is reflected in the cold of night. The cold emphasizes his aloneness, just as his aloneness emphasizes the cold.
This verse teaches us that emotion in hokku is evoked by what it includes, not by stating it openly. When stated openly — which some writers of hokku attempted from time to time — it usually fails by saying too much and saying it too obviously.
If there is a flaw in Issa’s verse, it is that he focuses on the personal a bit too much. It reminds us of the “lonely” paintings of William Hopper. Issa does not exceed the bounds of hokku here, and one comes to expect his verses to be more personal than those of other writers. Nonetheless, in this tendency we find both the popularity of Issa and his weakness.