December has begun, and with it has come a deeper cold in my region. The next few nights are expected to be at or below freezing.
Taigi wrote a hokku expressive of such growing cold:
Tsumetasa ni hōki sutekeri matsu no shita
nail-pain at broom left pine ‘s under
The “nail-pain” of which Taigi speaks is the pain one feels in one’s fingernails when the fingers become very cold. So what Taigi is saying is that he went out to sweep up the fallen leaves, but quickly found it so cold that the ends of his fingers began to hurt, and so he abandoned his broom beneath the pine tree, and went quickly back indoors.
This is a difficult thing to translate literally into English and still have it sound natural, so we will have to approximate, perhaps something like,
My fingers freezing,
The broom is left
Beneath the pine tree.
The verse expresses well that transitional time from autumn to winter, when one has not yet realized how cold it has become. Going out to sweep up the leaves left by autumn, we find that the cold of winter has unexpectedly come, and it has come so strongly that it forces us to abandon our broom and hurriedly return inside — where it is warmer.
Structurally this verse is simple:
Setting: My fingers freezing
Subject: The broom
Action: Is left beneath the pine tree
It is important to remember that the setting of a hokku is not limited just to the wider physical environment. It may also be a condition in or under which something takes place, and in this verse that condition is “My fingers freezing.” In English we cannot just say “My fingers hurting,” because the reader will not know why they are hurting, so we must be more explicit and make clear that they are hurting from the cold.
Keep in mind that the point of what we do here — of talking about and translating old Japanese hokku — is just to help you to learn how to write hokku in English, or in whatever your native language happens to be. Old hokku are enjoyable to read, but if we do not write new hokku as well, the tradition will die out. So the point of discussing what the old Japanese hokku writers did and how they did it is to show visitors to this site how to continue the hokku tradition in modern times, in modern languages. It does not matter if that language is English or Russian or Norwegian or Welsh, or any other language. One can write real hokku in it if one understands the aesthetics and underlying principles and techniques.