Aki no yama tokorodokoro ni kemuri tatsu
Autumn’s mountains here-there at smoke rises
The autumn hills;
Here and there
It is a pleasant verse, and reminds one of Appalachia, of seeing smoke from cabins rising here and there among the gold and red leaves of autumn covering the hills.
But it is a verse of early to mid autumn, and now we are entering deep autumn, a more severe and chilly time that leads us directly on to winter.
There is a hokku by Shōhaku that can be understood as early or as late autumn, depending on whether we translate it by the old lunar calendar or by the newer calendar. Under the new calendar it is:
I go nowhere —
No one comes.
Read thus, it expresses the beginning of the pulling away from the activities of life that we find in autumn as the days shorten and the nights grow longer, as Nature begins to wither. One thinks of a hermit life amid the coloring and falling leaves.
The first line is literally “tenth month.” It is like the old Quaker calendar, in which the months were numbered rather than named, but even more literally it is the “tenth moon.”
But what does “tenth month” mean? Actually, two different things, depending on whether we read Shōhaku’s verse according to the modern calendar adopted in Japan during the Meiji period, or by the old lunar calendar of Shōhaku’s day.
We have seen that by the new calendar the “tenth month” is October. But by the old calendar it is November. So that gives us two different feelings expressed in the same verse, depending on which calendar we choose.
By the old calendar it becomes
I go nowhere —
No one comes.
This gives the verse a darker feel. The leaves have already been swept from the trees by the rains and cold winds. The gold and crimson colors are gone, giving way to bare branches and dim, grey skies. Here the verse expresses the inhospitableness of the weather through the actions — or rather the lack of actions — of the writer. He visits no one, no one visits him. But it also expresses a kind of late autumn of the soul, an isolation and apartness that those growing older notice as they see they are no longer of interest to young people, and those their own age either have their own affairs to deal with with or have left this world.
All too often, it is the story of the elderly in America. I remember a Korean fellow I met in college. He was staying in a cheap, rundown apartment building in which numbers of old people also lived, because it was all they could afford. Watching their poor lives from day to day, seeing their isolation and how they were treated, he remarked to me, “America is Hell for old people.” I have never forgotten that “outside” perspective on how this country treats its elderly.
But getting back to hokku, this growing isolation of individuals in the late autumn makes “things to the contrary” matters of significance. That is why Buson could write
A person came
To visit a person;
The autumn evening.
It is quite a bland verse until one reads it in the context of the season as explained above. There is a significance to making a visit in autumn, a significance to receiving a visit, and this significance too is expressive of the season.
By the way, I rather consistently translate the common line aki no kure, found in large numbers of hokku, as “The autumn evening.” Technically it could also be translated as “Autumn’s end,” and that should be kept in mind not for linguistic reasons, but because it gives us a very good line for many hokku of the deepest part of autumn that is just about to become winter.
So for those of you interested in technicalities, the line can be understood either as:
Aki no kure
Autumn ‘s evening
Aki no kure
Autumn ‘s end
Shiki wrote this simple verse, which is a bit too interpretive for good hokku. It is both true and not true:
I am leaving,
You are staying;
Yuku ware ni todomaru nare ni aki futatsu
Go I at remain you at autumns two
One could loosely paraphrase it as:
With me going
And you staying,
There will be two autumns.
Shiki is seeing the situation from a dualistic point of view: When I am gone, we shall each experience our separate autumns. But there is also the unitary point of view, in which you and I are both autumn, along with each reddening and falling leaf. That is the wider perspective.
One must always keep in mind that when we are talking about weather and what is happening in Nature, a lot depends on where one is. A month that is golden autumn for some is already icy winter for others.