In hokku it is essential to write in harmony with the season. The most important quality of autumn is transience — the fact that everything changes, all is impermanent, nothing stays. Autumn is transience.
In autumn hokku, we experience and express this transience through the subjects we choose. We favor things withering and changing, things aging and weakening, things that do not stay.
We find this expressed in Gerard Manley Hopkins:
Márgaret, are you gríeving
Over Goldengrove unleaving?
Leáves líke the things of man, you
With your fresh thoughts car for, can you?
Áh! ás the heart grows older
It will come to such sights colder
By and by, nor spare a sigh
Though worlds of wanwood leafmeal lie;
And yet you wíll weep and know why.
Now no matter, child the name:
Sórrows spríngs áre the same.
Nor mouth had, no nor mind, expressed
What heart heard of, ghost guessed:
It ís the blight man was born for,
It is Margaret you mourn for.
These are the same sentiments at heart as those expressed in the Hōjōki of Kamo no Chōmei, who lived in the second half of the 12 century and first few years of the 13th, and who lived his latter days as a Buddhist recluse in a tiny hut:
Though the flow of the river never ceases, the water passing moment to moment is never the same. Where it eddies, bubbles rise to the surface, bursting and vanishing as others replace them, none lasting. Thus are people and their dwellings in this world — always changing.
Transience is characteristic of the universe; the universe is transience. And yet in some things it is more apparent than in others; we see it more readily in the leaves of autumn than in the shapes of the hills.
Another significant quality of autumn is loneliness, but the loneliness of hokku is not the desire for human company. It is more akin to the inner solitude that is the consequence of knowing that nothing stays, neither parents, nor friends, nor family. Ultimately everything goes. And the “loneliness” of hokku, what we call here the solitude of hokku — is the feeling we have in knowing, as we sit among the changing and falling leaves, that everything is temporary, from a single morning glory flower that lasts but a day to a star that perishes after aeons of time.
In the autumn all the abundance and vigor of summer is leaving, vanishing. And suddenly we see the real nature of existence — that all is impermanent. That leads us to the third important quality of autumn — poverty. By poverty we do not mean simply lack of money or resources. Instead we mean spiritual poverty, the knowledge that the gathering and amassing of wealth and possessions is meaningless, because none of it can be kept; one way or another, sooner or later, it will all leave us. Knowing this puts the sigificance of possessions into perspective. We realize what we need for living and what we do not need, what is important and what is not. And in autumn we see the poverty of Nature, as the leaves fall from the trees, revealing their hidden forms, and plants wither and gradually return to the root for the long sleep of winter.
If our hokku reflect these things — transience, solitude, and poverty — they will be in harmony with the season.
The aesthetics of autumn hokku, then, are an appreciation of that which is aging — of cedar wood turned whitish-grey, of rocks worn by rain and wind, of things with the weathered surface that time gives.
Have you ever noticed a newly-created landscaping job with large rocks brought in and set in the ground to give the garden a sense of being anchored to the earth? All too often the knowledge of the landscaper in such things is only superficial. He will bring in big boulders, but we see on them the fresh marks of being broken, and the light-colored grooves worn by the chains used to lift and move them. That defeats the purpose, because the rocks look very new, and it will take much time before rain and wind, frost and heat, weather them to a mellow look of age.
In writing autumn hokku, we should avoid that appearance of newness because it is contrary to the feeling of the season. And we should also avoid giving that sense of artificiality to our verse.
Of course the best way to understand what is in harmony with autumn is to go out into Nature often during the season, to walk, to sit, to watch and observe its characteristics — and then to write in keeping with those characteristics.
That keeps us in harmony with Nature in our writing, in harmony with the seasons, and the seasons are the life of hokku, which changes with them as does Nature.